A tughra is a callipraphic seal or signature of an Otoman Sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspndence. It was also carved on his seal and stamped on coins minted dduring his reign.
The name of the sultan is written in the bottom section called SERE. Depending on the period this name can be as simple as Orhan,son of Osman in the first tughra in 1326. In later periods honorofics and prayers are also added to the name of the tughra and his father.
The loops to the left of tughra are called beyze, from Arabic meaning eggs. Some interpretations of tughra design claims that