Being quite powerfull politically and economically, Pergamon was one of the leading cities in science and arts during the Hellenistic period in Anatolia. Pergamenese kings interest in these issues and support of artists undoubtedly had something to do with its being a culturel center.
The Pergamenese school emphasises the novelty of Greek Sculpture of the 4th century BC. The artificial and grotesque style of the 5th century BC was replaced by a realistic and naturalistictendency in the 4th century BC. Now, in this century, gods were depicted as accessible personalities, sportive bodies looked more natural, figures looked more vivacious, and their facial expressions, according to their motion, were closer to reality.
Some of the major features of the Pergamenese style, which is the Pioneer of the Baroque style, are as follows; the anatomy of the body was worked in detail, to give the muscles in a rather exaggerated way, the richness of motion, severe and sharp manners of the body. The garment and the motion of the body seem to act in paralel, by creating the shadows with in the grapery. It is possible to see exaggerated expressions which reveal the emotions and most of the time shows the figure in suffering. This expression was created by frowning, and giving a tragic look to the eyes. Beside the suffering expression, we can also see excitement and enthusiasm. The hair of the male statues and the reliefs is deishevelled, and a strong effect of the and enthusiasm. The hair of the male statues and the reliefs is disheveled, and a strong effect of the contracts of light and shadow was created by carving deep some parts of the hair.
Among the many of this school, the group of the bronze statues of Galatian which was ordered to be made by Attalos I on the rememberance of his victory over the Galatians, has a very significant place. The orginals of this group unfortunately have survived, however there are marble replicas in several museums from different periods.
The Altar of Zeus, is certainly the most important work of the Pergamenese school. This structure was build by the Pergamenese Kings, in remembrance of the battle against the Galatians. The scene of Giganthomachy on the outer friezes of the structure was worked in a high relief. The Gigants symbolize the Galatians, and the Gods symbolize the Pergamenese peoples Telephos life, as connected with the foundation myth of the city, was the subject on the inner friezes of the altar.
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