Laicism: One of the basic principles of the Turkish Republic is laicism. Turkey is the only Islamic country which has enshrined laicism in its Constitution and put it into practice. Important steps were taken on March 3rd, 1924, on the path to laicism during the Republican era, such as the abolition of the Caliphate, the Ministry of Shariah (Islamic Law) and Foundations, and later on with unification in education and later in justice. Further steps taken later include the Hat Reform, the closure of dervish lodges and retreats, the changing of the weekly holiday from Friday to Sunday, and the adoption of the Latin script and the Gregorian calendar. Finally, Law No. 3115 passed on February 5th, 1937 made “laicism” a constitutional principle.
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