The Food, Spirits and Tobacco Industry: This sector is dominated by food production of private companies. With exports increasing by 20% and reaching an average annual export of over 4 billion USD, Turkey has become a major supplier in the international field.
According to the 2002 Workplace Survey, more than 250,000 people are employed by the food, spirit and tobacco industry. At present, over 30,000 companies are engaged in production activities in a variety of sub-sectors such as meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, flour and flour products, sugar and sweets, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, processing of vegetables and fruit, vegetable oils, processing of water products and production of cigarets. There are no production activities by the public sector in these industrial sub-sectors, other than in the areas of sugar, tea, meat and meat products, and cigarettes.
The Textile and Apparel Industry: The textile and apparel industry is the driving force of the Country’s industrial sector. Turkey is the world’s sixth biggest cotton producer and almost 85% of its textile and apparel exports are cotton cloths. Almost 45% of the total output of the textile industry is exported. The share of apparel exports,on the other hand, rises to about 65%. Turkey is the world’s tenth largest textile exporter and the fourth largest ready-to-wear clothing exporter. As far as EU markets are concerned, Turkey is the sixth largest textile exporter and the second largest apparel exporter. Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands and the Russian Federation are Turkey’s most important markets regarding exports of textile products.
According to the 2002 results of the Industry and Workplaces General Consensus, 700,000 people are registered as employed in the textile and apparel sector in Turkey. The main production facilities of this sector are concentrated in the provinces of İstanbul, Bursa, Denizli, Adana, Gaziantep, Kahramanmaraş and Kayseri.
As a result of extensive modernization investments made since 1995 and the influence of the Customs Union with the EU, the textile and ready-to-wear sector has increased its competitive capability in foreign markets and has main-tained its export-oriented growth. However, in recent years the sector has faced difficulties from competition with countries such as China and India, which have cheap labor forces. Exports in this sector, constituting 22% of total industrial exports, amounted to 22.6 billion USD in 2007.
Turkey is one of the leading countries in terms of quality and quantity of leatherware production and exports.
The Leather and Leather Products Industry: The leather and leather products sector accounts for 1% of the total output of the manufacturing industry and has a share of 1,5% in total industrial employment. 558 million USD worth of processed leather, leather goods and shoes were exported in 2007. This sector has a 16% share in the world’s raw sheepskin and goatskin processing industry and a 3% share in global rawhide processing capacity. The production is concentrated in provinces such as İstanbul, İzmir, Uşak, Manisa, Bursa, Denizli, Bolu, Niğde, Gaziantep, Konya and Hatay.
The Chemical Industry: In 2007, the exports of the chemical industry sector, which have shown a 10% increase during the last five years, reached 4 billion USD, including pharmaceuticals. Employing the most advanced technology and production methods used by industrial countries, the pharmaceutical sub-sector, which accounts for 12% of chemical industry exports, occupies a notable place in the economy. Approximately 80% of the raw materials used by the pharmaceutical sub sector are imported. Active in this sector, there are around 300 companies that comply with the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) standards of the World Health Organization. Also, there are 42 production facilities, 14 of which are foreign capital investments
The Automotive Industry: Automotive industry production in Turkey dates back to 1954, when assembly of military jeeps and pick-up trucks began. Production continued with the assembly of commercial trucks and buses. The first serious manufacturing of automobiles took place in 1966. The automobile production that started with OTOSAN was followed by TOFAŞ and RENAULT in 1970, and investments by TOYOTA, HYUNDAI ASSAN and HONDA rapidly developed in the 1990s.
Ten of the 15 companies engaged in production in the automotive sector in Turkey are closely connected to the EU. Total production in this sector was 1,099,414 vehicles in 2007, including 634,883 automobiles and 464,531 commercial vehicles. Also, a total of 359,089 imported vehicles were bought by Turkey, including 236,725 automobiles. In the same year, the total automotive industry exports, including side products, reached 15.9 billion USD. The main export markets are EU countries such as Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, Spain, Poland, Romania, Hungary and Slovenia, as well as Israel, the Russian Federation, and Saudi Arabia.
The Electronics Industry: The electronics industry is one of the most rapidly developing sectors in Turkey. Significant achievements have been made during the last few years, particularly in the consumer electronics and telecommunications sub-sectors. In the electronics industry, total exports in radio, television and communication equipment amounted to 3 billion USD in 2006. Color TV sets are the most important item in this sector’s exports. There is a global tendency, as well as in Turkey, to transfer from cathode ray tubes to flat screen TV’s. The export of flat screen TV’s rose to 2.6 million in the first 9 months of 2007.
Durable Consumer Goods: The white household goods sector is one of the most dynamic and rapidly developing industrial sectors in Turkey.
The majority of white household goods manufactured here are exported, and Turkey is gradually becoming a production and exports base for the EU with regard to durable consumer goods. More than 50% of the refrigerators and washing machines, and 70% of the dish washers produced in Turkey are exported. In the January-September period of 2007, the production of the 4 main group products amonted to 12.4 million and the exports reached 8.6 million.
Jewellery: The Turkish jewellery industry, combining its rich cultural heritage with new and modern techniques, has attained justified acclaim across the world. Traditional techniques that are unique to Turkey such as filigree, niello and interwoven gold or silver also attract great attention.
Jewellery exports, totaling 120 million 158 thousand USD in 1996, increased to 2 billion 623 million 772 thousand USD in 2007.
Almost all exports consist of silver jewellery and are made to the USA, Germany, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Italy, Russia, Lithuania, Latvia, Libya and the United Kingdom.
The Iron and Steel Industry: Turkey’s production of molten steel rose to 25.75 million tons in 2007, strengthening its position as the world’s 11th and the EU’s third largest producer. Turkey is expected to realize exports of 14 million tons and 8.5 billion USD in long, sheet, special and high quality iron and steel products, excluding iron and steel goods and imports of 13 million tons and 9.5 billion USD and to be amongst the top 10 steel producers by 2010. By increasing the production capacity by 75% in the 2001-2007 period, Turkey became the second highest growing country in steel production, following China.
Also, it is expected that the molten steel production will increase by 12-15% in 2008 and consumption and exports will rise by 10%.