Election System: The Constitution also defines the election system. Elections in Turkey are held according to a proportional representation system in a single stage in accordance with the principles of general, equal, secret and direct voting, universal suffrage, public counting and tally of the votes. Every province is an electoral milieu and every ward is a precinct.
A 10% nationwide threshold is practiced in elections. Those political parties failing to receive at least 10% of the valid votes throughout the country in general elections, and throughout an electoral milieu in by-elections, cannot be represented in the parliament. The barraged “d’Hont applies for the distribution of deputies among the parties according to the election results.
Political Parties: Under the Constitution, the political parties are the essential elements of pluralistic and participatory democratic life and they are formed without prior permission.
The parties enjoy public juristic entity upon the submission of the names of a minimum of 30 founding members eligible as deputies to the Ministry of the Interior. Every Turkish citizen of 18 years of age has the right to join a political party. In general terms, public prosecutors and judges, civil servants, members of the Turkish Armed Forces and students in pre-higher education schools can-not become members of political parties. If the statutes, program and activities of a political party are in conflict with the independence of the State; its indivisible integrity with the country and nation; human rights; the principles of equality and a state go-verned by the rule of law; national sovereignty; and the principles of a democratic and secular Republic; or if they intend to advocate or try to establish any class or group dictatorship or any kind of dictatorship; and if they incite people to commit crimes, the party can be closed by the Constitutional Court or it can be partially or totally deprived of State aid in accordance with the severity of the act committed, upon the law-suit filed by the Chief Public Prosecutor of the Supreme Court of Appeals.
Following the military intervention on September 12th, 1980, all political parties in Turkey were closed and permission was granted in 1983 for their re-establishment.
Financial Structures and Auditing of Political Parties: The revenue resources of the political parties are the membership dues, donations of corporate or legal bodies within the limits specified in the Political Parties Law, and state aid set forth in the same code. Donations of real estate, movable assets, cash or the granting of privileges and rights to political parties by public institutions and agencies as well as local administrations are prohibited. Furthermore, political parties receiving donations or assistance from foreign states, international organizations, foreigners, and associations, groups or institutions in foreign countries are dissolved permanently. The Constitutional Court has the duty and authority to audit the finances of the political parties. The Court carries out this duty within the framework of the Political Parties Law and the verdicts it delivers are final.
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