The first traces of occupation of the area where the city of Ephesus later stood date back to 5000 B.C. During the Bronze Age, the hill called Ayasoluk (from Hagios Theologos) was already the site of a fortified settlement; it was probably the site of Apasa, mentioned in Hittite sources of the mid-2nd millenium, from which the Hellezined name Ephesus would have derived.
In the Grand Theater the cries of spectators in their tens of thousands mingle with the roar of the lions loosed on the gladiators.
As blood is spilled in the arena, out there on the foothills of Mt. Panayir the bright red anemones are blooming.
A dog bursts out of a cave, and then seven men emerge rubbing their eyes.
The Earliest Settlement in Aegean Region
0,7 miles diameter wide Cukurici Hoyuk (Mound) is located on the southeast part of Ephesus Ancient city, in a very lush plain surrounded with orchards.
The excavations directing that this hillside is dating back to prehistoric periods. And during 1000 years of time, it was settled continuously.
Large settlement segments are accumulated in Cukurici Hoyuk. Such settlements are typical from East and Southeast to Europe during both Neolothical and Bronze Ages ( 8th to 2nd Millenium BC.) And in Western Turkey (Western Anatolia) only few of them systematically studied.